Q1. Explain logical validity and soundness.

Q2. Give an original (not mentioned in class or class notes or book or on a website) example of a sound and unsound modus ponens argument. (Extra credit: Do the same for modus tollens)

Q3. Explain the difference between deductive, inductive and abductive arguments.

Q4. Explain Kant’s usage of the phrase “Sapere aude.” In his essay “What is enlightenment. Explain how it is related to his conception of philosophy.

Q5. Explain what makes actions right according to act utilitarianism.

Q6. Explain the difference between Bentham’s quantitative utilitarianism and Mill’s qualitative utilitarianism.

Q7. Explain rule utilitarianism.

Q8. Define Kant’s three versions of the categorical imperative (formula of universal law, formula of humanities, realm of ends formula).

Q9. List Kant’s four examples and the four different types of duties they correspond to.

Q10. Explain the difference between perfect and imperfect duties.

Q11. Explain the basics of social contract theory.

Q12. Who is the fool and what is ‘the fool objection’ and why is this a problem for social contract theory?

Q13. Explain Rawls’ difference principle and how he arrives at it.

Q14. Explain why one would choose the difference principle over a utilitarian principle in the original position.

Q15. Explain Nozick’s basic conception of justice. (justice in acquisition, justice in transfers, and rectification)

Q16. What was Elizabeth Warren’s (the politician not the abortion philosopher) objection to this line of thinking?

Q17. Explain Thomson’s main thesis in her essay “A defense of Abortion,” and explain how the violinist example is related to abortion.

Q18. Explain why Marguis thinks abortion is wrong?

Q19. Explain Warren’s approach to the abortion issue. What problem does this cause for her.

Q20. Explain Singer’s basic argument in his paper “Unsanctifying human life”

Q21. Explain Reagan’s basic distinction between patients and agents and how it is related to his subject-to-a-life criteria.

Q22. Explain Norcross’ basic argument in his paper “Puppies, Pigs, and Marginal Cases.”

Q23. Explain Singer’s basic argument in his paper “The Singer solution to world poverty”

Q24. List the Ethical theory most closely associated with the following philosophers:

Jeremy Bentham –

John Stuart Mill –

Immanuel Kant –

Thomas Hobbes –

Jean Jacques Rousseau –

John Rawls –

Robert Nozick –

Peter Singer –

Allen Wood –


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